The Black Death Essay: One Of Darkest Pages Of History

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The Black death is one of the darkest pages of the world`s history. Very few people know how many people died during the disease to spread over if anyone.

The Black Death is a disease of many centuries. It is a natural focal contagious disease, which is caused by plague bacillus called Yersinia pestis. It is needless to say, that it is related to extremely dangerous diseases. There are a few natural focuses where there is still black death occurred among low percent of rodents. Plague epidemic among people were caused by the rodents migration oftentimes infected in natural focuses.

People get infected through fleas who change a host migrating. Besides that, it is possible to get infected through processing of the killed infected animals` skin by hunters. Crucially other is people-to-people infection realized by airborne transmission.

Sporadic cases are informed of in different countries including the USA. The plague activators are known for being resistant to low temperatures, is well kept in spittle but it dies at temperature of 55°С during 10-15 minutes and practically at once at boiling.

It gets into a body through the skin when a flea bites, jelly coats of pipes, digestive tract, conjunctiva. Being bitten by the infected fleas, a papule or a pimple appears on the spot of the bite filled with hemorrhagic content. After that, the process is spread on lymph tubes with no lymphangitis showed.

Generation of bacteria in macrophages of lymph tubes leads to their rapid increasing, fusing and clumping (bubonic plague). Further generalization of infection, which is not strictly compulsory, moreover under the conditions of modern antibacterial therapy, may lead to development of septic stage accompanied with striking practically every internal part of a body. However, from epidemiological point of view seeding into lung tissues play more of an important role.  

From the moment of plague pneumonia development, a human person becomes a source of infection himself but at that, people-to-people a pneumonic form of a disease is transferred, a very dangerous with a race.

Bubonic plague is characterized with rapidly appeared painful adhesions, more often in the area of groin glands on one side.

Incubation period is 2-6 days (more rarely 1-12 days). During a few days, the sizes of conglomerates increase, skin upon it might become reddened.

At the same time increase of other groups of lymth tubes of secondary buboes. Lymth tubes of primary sites undergoes softening, at puncturing a mattery and hemorrhagic content appears a minute analysis of which shows a big number of gram-negative spatula with bipolar coloration of spatula. If no antibacterial therapy, matured lymth tubes are to be broken.

Then a gradual fistula healing goes. Severity of patient's condition increases up to the 4-5 day, the temperature might be higher than normal, sometimes a high fewer goes after but in the yearly days a patient`s condition remains satisfactory. The fact that a person sick with bubonic plague may leave for another corner of the world considering himself/herself healthy explains everything.     

But bubonic plague may cause a generalization of the process any minute and go into secondarily septic form or secondarily pneumonic form. In such cases, a status of patient becomes subhuman. Toxic symptoms grow by the hour. The temperature after a strongest cold fit increases high. There are all symptoms of sepsis: muscle pain, sharp weakness, headache, dizziness, overloading of consciousness up to its losing, sometimes arousing and insomnia. Cyanosis develops with the development of pneumonia, coughing with a foamy bloody sputum containing a huge number of plague bacillus. This sputum namely becomes a source of people-to-people infection with the development of primarily pneumonic plague.

Septic and pneumonic forms of plague like any other complicated sepsis goes brief dermatorrhagia. There are possible gastrointestinal bleeding, severe tachycardia, fast and requiring corrections arterial blood pressure fall. Clinical presentation of primarily septic or primarily pneumonic form is no different from secondarily forms but primarily forms oftentimes have shorter incubation period up to a few hours.

Epidemiological anamnesis plays a great role in diagnostics in modern conditions. Arriving from endemic zones such as Vietnam, Birma, Ecuador and others or plague control stations of a patient with described above symptoms of bubonic plague or with symptoms the most complicated pneumonia at bold lymphadenopathy  is a serious enough argument in order to take the measures on localization of potential plague and its accurate diagnosis. It should be made a point of a possibility of a personal being infected under the modern conditions of medicated preventive measures who were contacting for quite some time with coughing person sick with plague is very small. At present days there are no cases of medical staff to be sick with primarily pneumonic plague.

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